Answer The Philosophy Questions 4

Answer The Philosophy Questions 4

QUESTION 1

1. In his treatise on the art of persuasion, the Rhetoric, Aristotle’s distinguishes three types of classic argumentative strategies. They are __________, __________, and __________.

a.

the constructive approach, the destructive approach, and the hybrid approach

b.

the logical appeal, the ethical appeal, and the emotional appeal

c.

the appeal to common sense, the appeal to irony, and the appeal to humor

d.

the “go big or go home” style, the “whack-a-mole” style; and the “plain jane” style

e.

the appeal to origins, the appeal to analogy, and the appeal to favorites

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QUESTION 2

1. Which of the following best characterizes the Ontological Argument for the existence of God?

a.

If God exists, then God is perfect.

b.

The nature of God is different fro different people of different cultures and religious backgrounds.

c.

The world must have been created by the greatest possible being, and this being is God.

d.

In the case of God, defined as the greatest of all possible beings, essence entails existence.

e.

If God does not exist, then nothing would exist now.

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QUESTION 3

1. Which of the following represents a cogent objection to the Ontological argument?

a.

It proves too much.

b.

To exist is not necessarily better than not existing.

c.

Existence is not a property.

d.

Essences cannot be properties.

e.

Causes do not necessarily precede effects.

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QUESTION 4

1. Which of the following best characterizes the Cosmological Argument for the existence of God?

a.

It is impossible for a series of causes which bring about any particular circumstance to go back infinitely in time; therefore, there had to be a first cause, which is God.

b.

The universe cannot have been created by anything less perfect than God.

c.

Even at the outmost reaches of the cosmos or universe, we are in the hands of the Creator.

d.

The cosmos is an ordered universe; order is a kind of perfection; only God is perfect; therefore an ordered universe proves that God exists.

e.

The world or cosmos, in all its magnificence, beauty, and complexity, could not have come about unless God exists.

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QUESTION 5

1. Which of the following represents a cogent objection to the Cosmological Argument?

a.

No cosmos can ever be perfect in itself; therefore its creator, God, cannot be perfect either.

b.

The world is filled with evil things and imperfections; how could God be the cause of these?

c.

No cause of reality can itself be less real than the world itself.

d.

If God created the universe, then time would have to be infinite.

e.

It remains unclear why a series of finite causes cannot be infinite.

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QUESTION 6

1. Which of the following best characterizes the Teleological Argument for the existence of God?

a.

The only explanation for miracles is divine intervention; that miracles happen proves that God exists.

b.

The existence of God is commonly held to be a fact, a belief shared by the some of the greatest minds who have ever lived. It is unlikely that the majority of human thinkers could be wrong.

c.

Without God, life would have no meaning; our lives do have meaning; therefore, God exists.

d.

God and nature are one; we can prove the existence of nature through observation, therefore God exists.

e.

The universe could not have come about by chance; only a divine, all-powerful being could have created a universe as complex and magnificent as ours.

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QUESTION 7

1. The problem of evil is the problem of

a.

recognizing evil for what it truly is.

b.

reconciling the apparent existence of evil with the existence of a benevolent, all-powerful God.

c.

understanding that there is no such thing as evil in the eyes of God.

d.

the existence of atheism in the world.

e.

All of the above.

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QUESTION 8

1. Which of the following is used as a defense in response to the problem of evil?

a.

Evil is only the absence of good.

b.

Evil is caused by humans through their free choice.

c.

A world without evil would be ill-suited to the purpose of moral and spiritual development.

d.

The existence of evil is necessary for the existence of good; one cannot exist without the other.

e.

All of the above.

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QUESTION 9

1. What is an ad hominem fallacy?

a.

This is a case in which someone argues for a claim based on an emotion that is irrelevant to the question at hand, such as pity or fear.

b.

This fallacy occurs when someone uses an equivocal or ambiguous terms in one of its senses in the premises of an argument and in the other sense in the conclusion.

c.

The fallacy is also known as the “slippery slope” fallacy–this is when someone arrives as a desired conclusion by making an illegitimate leap from an uncontroversial premise to additional related premises which do imply the conclusion but are not themselves justified.

d.

Rather than evaluating and critiquing what an argument says, someone guilty of this fallacy attacks the person making the argument.

e.

This common fallacy occurs when someone tries to justify a wrongdoing by pointing out that another person has done exactly the same thing and not been called out for it.

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QUESTION 10

1. Bertrand Russell claims that philosophical knowledge is not really a different kind of knowledge from that which concerns science; however, there is an essential difference that he says distinguishes the study of philosophy from scientific studies. Which of the following best characterizes this distinguishing feature?

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