PART IV · Administration of Programs and Services

PART IV · Administration of Programs and Services

I. Planning the Curriculum

l. Who assigns committee members?

2. What groups are represented within the committee?

3. Who determines priorities. standards, competencies, etc.?

4. How do we identify needs, problems, issues, etc.?

5. Who formulates goals and objectives? What type of goals, objectives?

II. Implementing the Curriculum

l . Who defines what knowledge is most important?

2. Who decides on instructional materials and media?

3. Who evaluates teachers? What measurement criteria ore used?

4. Who decides how teachers will be prepared and trained for the program?

5. Who determines how much money/resources will be made available?

Ill. Evaluating the Curriculum

l . Who decides how the curriculum will be evaluated?

2. I,A/ho decides on assessment procedures? Tests? And how ore they to be used?

3. Have our goals and objectives been addressed in the evaluation?

4. Does the program work? To what extent? How can it be improved?

5. Who is responsible for reporting the results? To whom?

6. Do we wish to make comparisons or judgments about the program? Why? Why not?

during the early period and set the stage for the modern period. 19 Tyler proposed a number of steps in planning a curriculum, outlined in Figure 13-1, starting with the goals of the school. These goals would be selected on the basis of what he called sources of information about important aspects of contemporary life, subject matter, and the needs and interests of learners. By analyzing changing society, at the local, state, or national level, it could be determined what goals (and also what subject matter) were most important. By consulting with sub- ject specialists (as well as teachers), helpful decisions could be determined about concepts, skills, and tasks to be taught in the various subjects (reading, math, science, etc.). By identifying the needs and interests of students, a beginning point in content, methods, and materials could be determined. (Hence, Tyler helped popularize the concept of a needs assessment study.)

Tyler then suggested that the school staff, possibly organized as a curriculum committee, screen the rec- ommended goals according to the school’s (or school

1″Tyler, Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction.

district’s) philosophy and beliefs about psychology learning {or what some might call learning theory . What resulted from this screening process would be instructional objectives, more specific than the schoor~ goals and designed for classroom use.

Tyler then proceeded to the selection of learning experiences that would allow the attainment of obje.::- tives. Learning experiences would take into account the developmental stage of the learners, such as their age and abilities, and consider the learners’ background (present attainments), external environment (classroom and school), and what the learners did (their behav- ior) when learning. Tyler next talked about organizing learning experiences in a systematic way to produce a maximum, positive effect. Here he elaborated on the vertical (recurring subject matter such as social studies from grade to grade) relationship and horizontal (in- tegration of different subjects at the same grade levei relationship of curriculum.

Tyler elaborated on the need for evaluation tt” determine whether the objectives were achieved or the learning experiences actually produced the intended results. Also, it was necessary to determine whether

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CHAPTER 13 · Curriculum Development and Implementation


Guidelines for Curriculum Development Below are some guiding statements to help clarify the steps involved in curriculum development. These statements are based on school practice and apply to all curriculum models.

• The curriculum-design committee should include teachers, parents, and administrators; some schools might include students, too.

• The committee should establish a sense of mission or purpose in the early stages or meetings.

• Needs and priorities should be addressed in relation to students and society.

• School goals and objectives should be reviewed, but they should not serve as the only guiding criteria on which to develop the curriculum. Such criteria should connote a broad educational philosophy to guide curriculum development.

• Alternative curriculum designs should be contrasted in terms of advantages and disadvantages such as cost, scheduling, class size, facilities and personnel required, existing relationship to present programs, and so on.

• To help teachers gain insight into a new or modified design, it should reveal expected cognitive and affective skills, concepts, and outcomes .


Tentative Objective

• Principals have significant impact on curriculum development through their influence on school climate and their support of the curriculum process.

• District administrators, especially the superinten- dent, have only a peripheral impact on curriculum development because their outlook and concerns center on managerial activities. Their curriculum role is minor, but their support and approval are essential.

• State education officials have even less impact on curriculum development, although various depart- ments publish guides, bulletins, and reports that can be informative. However, these educators establish policies, rules, and regulations that affect curriculum and instruction.